: Cancer patients are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Both old-generation cytostatics/cytotoxics and new-generation "targeted" drugs can in fact damage cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells of veins and arteries, specialized cells of the conduction system, pericardium, and valves. A new discipline, cardio-oncology, has therefore developed with the aim of protecting cancer patients from cardiovascular events, while also providing them with the best possible oncologic treatment. Anthracyclines have long been known to elicit cardiotoxicity that, depending on treatment- or patient-related factors, may progress with a variable velocity toward cardiomyopathy and systolic heart failure. However, early compromise of diastolic function may precede systolic dysfunction, and a progression of early diastolic dysfunction to diastolic rather than systolic heart failure has been documented in long-term cancer survivors. This chapter first describes general notions about hypertension in the cancer patient and then moves on reviewing the pathophysiology and clinical trajectories of diastolic dysfunction, and the molecular mechanisms of anthracycline-induced diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction can in fact be caused and/or aggravated by hypertension. Pharmacologic foundations and therapeutic opportunities to prevent or treat diastolic dysfunction before it progresses toward heart failure are also reviewed, with a special emphasis on the mechanisms of action of drugs that raised hopes to treat diastolic dysfunction in the general population (sacubitril/valsartan, guanylyl cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ranolazine, inhibitors of type-2 sodium-glucose-inked transporter). Cardio-oncologists will be confronted with the risk:benefit ratio of using these drugs in the cancer patient.

: Cancer patients are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Both old-generation cytostatics/cytotoxics and new-generation "targeted" drugs can in fact damage cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells of veins and arteries, specialized cells of the conduction system, pericardium, and valves. A new discipline, cardio-oncology, has therefore developed with the aim of protecting cancer patients from cardiovascular events, while also providing them with the best possible oncologic treatment. Anthracyclines have long been known to elicit cardiotoxicity that, depending on treatment- or patient-related factors, may progress with a variable velocity toward cardiomyopathy and systolic heart failure. However, early compromise of diastolic function may precede systolic dysfunction, and a progression of early diastolic dysfunction to diastolic rather than systolic heart failure has been documented in long-term cancer survivors. This chapter first describes general notions about hypertension in the cancer patient and then moves on reviewing the pathophysiology and clinical trajectories of diastolic dysfunction, and the molecular mechanisms of anthracycline-induced diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction can in fact be caused and/or aggravated by hypertension. Pharmacologic foundations and therapeutic opportunities to prevent or treat diastolic dysfunction before it progresses toward heart failure are also reviewed, with a special emphasis on the mechanisms of action of drugs that raised hopes to treat diastolic dysfunction in the general population (sacubitril/valsartan, guanylyl cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ranolazine, inhibitors of type-2 sodium-glucose-inked transporter). Cardio-oncologists will be confronted with the risk:benefit ratio of using these drugs in the cancer patient.

Beyond hypertension: Diastolic dysfunction associated with cancer treatment in the era of cardio-oncology

Minotti, Giorgio;Menna, Pierantonio;Salvatorelli, Emanuela;
2022-01-01

Abstract

: Cancer patients are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Both old-generation cytostatics/cytotoxics and new-generation "targeted" drugs can in fact damage cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells of veins and arteries, specialized cells of the conduction system, pericardium, and valves. A new discipline, cardio-oncology, has therefore developed with the aim of protecting cancer patients from cardiovascular events, while also providing them with the best possible oncologic treatment. Anthracyclines have long been known to elicit cardiotoxicity that, depending on treatment- or patient-related factors, may progress with a variable velocity toward cardiomyopathy and systolic heart failure. However, early compromise of diastolic function may precede systolic dysfunction, and a progression of early diastolic dysfunction to diastolic rather than systolic heart failure has been documented in long-term cancer survivors. This chapter first describes general notions about hypertension in the cancer patient and then moves on reviewing the pathophysiology and clinical trajectories of diastolic dysfunction, and the molecular mechanisms of anthracycline-induced diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction can in fact be caused and/or aggravated by hypertension. Pharmacologic foundations and therapeutic opportunities to prevent or treat diastolic dysfunction before it progresses toward heart failure are also reviewed, with a special emphasis on the mechanisms of action of drugs that raised hopes to treat diastolic dysfunction in the general population (sacubitril/valsartan, guanylyl cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ranolazine, inhibitors of type-2 sodium-glucose-inked transporter). Cardio-oncologists will be confronted with the risk:benefit ratio of using these drugs in the cancer patient.
2022
: Cancer patients are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Both old-generation cytostatics/cytotoxics and new-generation "targeted" drugs can in fact damage cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells of veins and arteries, specialized cells of the conduction system, pericardium, and valves. A new discipline, cardio-oncology, has therefore developed with the aim of protecting cancer patients from cardiovascular events, while also providing them with the best possible oncologic treatment. Anthracyclines have long been known to elicit cardiotoxicity that, depending on treatment- or patient-related factors, may progress with a variable velocity toward cardiomyopathy and systolic heart failure. However, early compromise of diastolic function may precede systolic dysfunction, and a progression of early diastolic dysfunction to diastolic rather than systolic heart failure has been documented in long-term cancer survivors. This chapter first describes general notions about hypertension in the cancer patient and then moves on reviewing the pathophysiology and clinical trajectories of diastolic dysfunction, and the molecular mechanisms of anthracycline-induced diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction can in fact be caused and/or aggravated by hypertension. Pharmacologic foundations and therapeutic opportunities to prevent or treat diastolic dysfunction before it progresses toward heart failure are also reviewed, with a special emphasis on the mechanisms of action of drugs that raised hopes to treat diastolic dysfunction in the general population (sacubitril/valsartan, guanylyl cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ranolazine, inhibitors of type-2 sodium-glucose-inked transporter). Cardio-oncologists will be confronted with the risk:benefit ratio of using these drugs in the cancer patient.
Anthracyclines; Cancer treatment; Cardio-oncology; Cardiotoxicity; Diastolic dysfunction; Heart failure; Hypertension
Anthracyclines; Cancer treatment; Cardio-oncology; Cardiotoxicity; Diastolic dysfunction; Heart failure; Hypertension
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/72566
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