Background Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the major cause of late graft-related death after heart transplantation (HT). Identification of patients at risk of cardiovascular events has relevant implications in appropriately guiding resources and intensity of follow-up. In this context, the prognostic relevance of serial coronary imaging long-term after HT is unexplored. Methods Recipients with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and coronary angiography performed 1 and 5 years after HT were monitored for subsequent 1 to 10 years to analyze the association of serial coronary imaging with cardiovascular death and major cardiovascular events (MACEs). Results Included were 131 patients. The MACE incidence was 31.8 per 1,000 patient-years, and cardiovascular mortality was 17.4 per 1,000 patient-years. Progression of coronary lesions detected by angiography and changes in IVUS-defined parameters, including an increase in maximal intimal thickness (MIT) ≥0.35 mm and vascular remodeling, predicted MACE occurrence. However, only MIT change ≥0.35 mm also predicted cardiovascular mortality. Among patients with normal or stable angiography, an MIT change ≥0.35 mm identified those with a significantly higher MACE rate (80 vs 13 events/1,000 patient-years). Worsening metabolic parameters appeared associated with the increasing severity of CAV development. Conclusions Combined imaging analysis of progression of angiographic lesions and IVUS-detected MIT between 1 and 5 years post-HT allows discriminating patients at high, intermediate, and low risk for adverse long-term cardiovascular outcomes. The metabolic syndrome milieu is confirmed as a key risk factor for long-term CAV progression and adverse prognosis.

Interplay of coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound in predicting long-term outcomes after heart transplantation

Grigioni Francesco
2015-01-01

Abstract

Background Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the major cause of late graft-related death after heart transplantation (HT). Identification of patients at risk of cardiovascular events has relevant implications in appropriately guiding resources and intensity of follow-up. In this context, the prognostic relevance of serial coronary imaging long-term after HT is unexplored. Methods Recipients with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and coronary angiography performed 1 and 5 years after HT were monitored for subsequent 1 to 10 years to analyze the association of serial coronary imaging with cardiovascular death and major cardiovascular events (MACEs). Results Included were 131 patients. The MACE incidence was 31.8 per 1,000 patient-years, and cardiovascular mortality was 17.4 per 1,000 patient-years. Progression of coronary lesions detected by angiography and changes in IVUS-defined parameters, including an increase in maximal intimal thickness (MIT) ≥0.35 mm and vascular remodeling, predicted MACE occurrence. However, only MIT change ≥0.35 mm also predicted cardiovascular mortality. Among patients with normal or stable angiography, an MIT change ≥0.35 mm identified those with a significantly higher MACE rate (80 vs 13 events/1,000 patient-years). Worsening metabolic parameters appeared associated with the increasing severity of CAV development. Conclusions Combined imaging analysis of progression of angiographic lesions and IVUS-detected MIT between 1 and 5 years post-HT allows discriminating patients at high, intermediate, and low risk for adverse long-term cardiovascular outcomes. The metabolic syndrome milieu is confirmed as a key risk factor for long-term CAV progression and adverse prognosis.
cardiac allograft vasculopathy; coronary angiography; heart transplantation; intravascular ultrasound; long-term cardiovascular outcomes; post-heart transplant complications; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Cardiovascular Diseases; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Forecasting; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Postoperative Complications; Prognosis; Risk Factors; Treatment Outcome; Young Adult; Coronary Angiography; Heart Transplantation; Ultrasonography; Interventional; Transplantation; Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine; Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine; Surgery; Medicine (all)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/3532
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