Background and objective: The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells is the recommended technique for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. However, it is burdened by some limitations, as it is time consuming and subjective, and it requires trained personnel. In other fields the adoption of deep neural networks has provided an effective high-level abstraction of the raw data, resulting in the ability to automatically generate optimized high-level features. Methods: To alleviate IIF limitations, this paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system classifying HEp-2 fluorescence intensity: it represents each image using an Invariant Scattering Convolutional Network (Scatnet), which is locally translation invariant and stable to deformations, a characteristic useful in case of HEp- 2 samples. To cope with the inter-observer discrepancies found in the dataset, we also introduce a method for gold standard computation that assigns a label and a reliability score to each HEp-2 sample on the basis of annotations provided by expert physicians. Features by Scatnet and gold standard information are then used to train a Support Vector Machine. Results: The proposed CAD is tested on a new dataset of 1771 images annotated by three independent medical centers. The performances achieved by our CAD in recognizing positive, weak positive and negative samples are also compared against those obtained by other two approaches presented so far in the literature. The same system trained on this new dataset is then tested on two public datasets, namely MIVIA and I3Asel. Conclusions: The results confirm the effectiveness of our proposal, also revealing that it achieves the same performance as medical experts.

A computer-aided diagnosis system for HEp-2 fluorescence intensity classification

Merone M;Soda P
2019-01-01

Abstract

Background and objective: The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells is the recommended technique for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. However, it is burdened by some limitations, as it is time consuming and subjective, and it requires trained personnel. In other fields the adoption of deep neural networks has provided an effective high-level abstraction of the raw data, resulting in the ability to automatically generate optimized high-level features. Methods: To alleviate IIF limitations, this paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system classifying HEp-2 fluorescence intensity: it represents each image using an Invariant Scattering Convolutional Network (Scatnet), which is locally translation invariant and stable to deformations, a characteristic useful in case of HEp- 2 samples. To cope with the inter-observer discrepancies found in the dataset, we also introduce a method for gold standard computation that assigns a label and a reliability score to each HEp-2 sample on the basis of annotations provided by expert physicians. Features by Scatnet and gold standard information are then used to train a Support Vector Machine. Results: The proposed CAD is tested on a new dataset of 1771 images annotated by three independent medical centers. The performances achieved by our CAD in recognizing positive, weak positive and negative samples are also compared against those obtained by other two approaches presented so far in the literature. The same system trained on this new dataset is then tested on two public datasets, namely MIVIA and I3Asel. Conclusions: The results confirm the effectiveness of our proposal, also revealing that it achieves the same performance as medical experts.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/5538
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