Context: Numerous studies have demonstrated detrimental skeletal consequences following bariatric surgery. Methods: A working group of the European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) performed an updated review of existing literature on changes of bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture risk following bariatric surgery and provided advice on management based on expert opinion. Literature review: Based on observational studies, bariatric surgery is associated with a 21–44% higher risk of all fractures. Fracture risk is time-dependent and increases approximately 3 years after bariatric surgery. The bariatric procedures that have a malabsorptive component (including Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass (RYGB) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)) have clearly been associated with the highest risk of fracture. The extent of high-turnover bone loss suggests a severe skeletal insult. This is associated with diminished bone strength and compromised microarchitecture. RYGB was the most performed bariatric procedure worldwide until very recently, when sleeve gastrectomy (SG) became more prominent. There is growing evidence that RYGB is associated with greater reduction in BMD, greater increase in BTMs, and higher risk of fractures compared with SG but RCTs on optimal management are still lacking. Expert opinion: In all patients, it is mandatory to treat vitamin D deficiency, to achieve adequate daily calcium and protein intake and to promote physical activity before and following bariatric surgery. In post-menopausal women and men older than 50 years, osteoporosis treatment would be reasonable in the presence of any of the following criteria: i) history of recent fragility fracture after 40 years of age, ii) BMD T-score ≤ −2 at hip or spine, iii) FRAX score with femoral neck BMD exceeding 20% for the 10-year major osteoporotic fracture probability or exceeding 3% for hip fracture. Zoledronate as first choice should be preferred due to intolerance of oral formulations and malabsorption. Zoledronate should be used with caution due to hypocemia risk. It is recommended to ensure adequate 25-OH vitamin D level and calcium supplementation before administering zoledronate. Conclusions: The bariatric procedures that have a malabsorptive component have been associated with the highest turnover bone loss and risk of fracture. There is a knowledge gap on osteoporosis treatment in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. More research is necessary to direct and support guidelines.

Bariatric surgery and skeletal health: A narrative review and position statement for management by the European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS)

Palermo A.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Context: Numerous studies have demonstrated detrimental skeletal consequences following bariatric surgery. Methods: A working group of the European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) performed an updated review of existing literature on changes of bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture risk following bariatric surgery and provided advice on management based on expert opinion. Literature review: Based on observational studies, bariatric surgery is associated with a 21–44% higher risk of all fractures. Fracture risk is time-dependent and increases approximately 3 years after bariatric surgery. The bariatric procedures that have a malabsorptive component (including Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass (RYGB) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)) have clearly been associated with the highest risk of fracture. The extent of high-turnover bone loss suggests a severe skeletal insult. This is associated with diminished bone strength and compromised microarchitecture. RYGB was the most performed bariatric procedure worldwide until very recently, when sleeve gastrectomy (SG) became more prominent. There is growing evidence that RYGB is associated with greater reduction in BMD, greater increase in BTMs, and higher risk of fractures compared with SG but RCTs on optimal management are still lacking. Expert opinion: In all patients, it is mandatory to treat vitamin D deficiency, to achieve adequate daily calcium and protein intake and to promote physical activity before and following bariatric surgery. In post-menopausal women and men older than 50 years, osteoporosis treatment would be reasonable in the presence of any of the following criteria: i) history of recent fragility fracture after 40 years of age, ii) BMD T-score ≤ −2 at hip or spine, iii) FRAX score with femoral neck BMD exceeding 20% for the 10-year major osteoporotic fracture probability or exceeding 3% for hip fracture. Zoledronate as first choice should be preferred due to intolerance of oral formulations and malabsorption. Zoledronate should be used with caution due to hypocemia risk. It is recommended to ensure adequate 25-OH vitamin D level and calcium supplementation before administering zoledronate. Conclusions: The bariatric procedures that have a malabsorptive component have been associated with the highest turnover bone loss and risk of fracture. There is a knowledge gap on osteoporosis treatment in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. More research is necessary to direct and support guidelines.
2022
Bariatric surgery
Bone mineral density
Bone turnover markers
Fractures
Osteoporosis
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
Sleeve gastrectomy
Female
Gastrectomy
Humans
Male
Bariatric Surgery
Gastric Bypass
Obesity, Morbid
Osteoporotic Fractures
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/64788
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 12
  • Scopus 28
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 22
social impact