Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the patellofemoral (PF) joint to characterize patellofemoral instability, and to highlight the effect of lateral retinacular release in combination with tibial tuberosity transfer with respect to contact pressures (CP), contact area (CA), and kinematics during knee flexion. Methods: A comprehensive, dynamic FE model of the knee joint was developed and validated through parametric comparison of PF kinematics, CP, and CA between FE simulations and in vitro, cadaveric experiments. Using this FE model, we characterized the effect of patellar instability, lateral retinacular release (LR), and tibial tuberosity transfer (TTT) in the setting of medial patellofemoral ligament injury during knee flexion. Results: There was a high level of agreement in CP, CA, lateral patellar displacement, anterior patellar displacement, and superior patellar displacement between the FE model and the in vitro data (P values 0.19, 0.16, 0.81, 0.10, and 0.36, respectively). Instability conditions demonstrated the greatest CP compared to all of the other conditions. During all degrees of flexion, TTT and concomitant lateral release (TTT + LR) decreased CP significantly. TTT alone shows a consistently lower CA compared to nonrelease conditions with subsequent lateral release further decreasing CA. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the FE model described reliably simulates PF kinematics and CP within 1 SD in uncomplicated cadaveric specimens. The FE model is able to show that tibial tubercle transfer in combination with lateral retinacular release markedly decreases patellofemoral CP and CA and increases lateral patellar displacement that may decrease bony stabilization of the patella within the trochlear groove and promote lateral patellar instability. Clinical Relevance: The goal of surgical correction for patellar instability focuses on reestablishing normal PF kinematics. By developing an FE model that can demonstrate patient PF kinematics and the results of different surgical approaches, surgeons may tailor their treatment to the best possible outcome. Of the surgical approaches that have been described, the biomechanical effects of the combination of TTT with lateral retinacular release have not been studied. Thus, the FE analysis will help shed light on the effect of the combination of TTT with lateral retinacular release on PF kinematics.

Lateral Release With Tibial Tuberosity Transfer Alters Patellofemoral Biomechanics Promoting Multidirectional Patellar Instability

Longo U. G.;Denaro V.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the patellofemoral (PF) joint to characterize patellofemoral instability, and to highlight the effect of lateral retinacular release in combination with tibial tuberosity transfer with respect to contact pressures (CP), contact area (CA), and kinematics during knee flexion. Methods: A comprehensive, dynamic FE model of the knee joint was developed and validated through parametric comparison of PF kinematics, CP, and CA between FE simulations and in vitro, cadaveric experiments. Using this FE model, we characterized the effect of patellar instability, lateral retinacular release (LR), and tibial tuberosity transfer (TTT) in the setting of medial patellofemoral ligament injury during knee flexion. Results: There was a high level of agreement in CP, CA, lateral patellar displacement, anterior patellar displacement, and superior patellar displacement between the FE model and the in vitro data (P values 0.19, 0.16, 0.81, 0.10, and 0.36, respectively). Instability conditions demonstrated the greatest CP compared to all of the other conditions. During all degrees of flexion, TTT and concomitant lateral release (TTT + LR) decreased CP significantly. TTT alone shows a consistently lower CA compared to nonrelease conditions with subsequent lateral release further decreasing CA. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the FE model described reliably simulates PF kinematics and CP within 1 SD in uncomplicated cadaveric specimens. The FE model is able to show that tibial tubercle transfer in combination with lateral retinacular release markedly decreases patellofemoral CP and CA and increases lateral patellar displacement that may decrease bony stabilization of the patella within the trochlear groove and promote lateral patellar instability. Clinical Relevance: The goal of surgical correction for patellar instability focuses on reestablishing normal PF kinematics. By developing an FE model that can demonstrate patient PF kinematics and the results of different surgical approaches, surgeons may tailor their treatment to the best possible outcome. Of the surgical approaches that have been described, the biomechanical effects of the combination of TTT with lateral retinacular release have not been studied. Thus, the FE analysis will help shed light on the effect of the combination of TTT with lateral retinacular release on PF kinematics.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/67475
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