Background: Spinal infections are an important clinical problem that often require aggressive medical therapy, and sometimes even surgery. Known risk factors are advanced age, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, immunosuppression, alcoholism, long-term steroid use, concomitant infections, poly-trauma, malignant tumor, and previous surgery or invasive procedures (discography, chemonucleolysis, and surgical procedures involving or adjacent to the intervertebral disc space). The most common level of involvement is at the lumbar spine, followed by the thoracic, cervical and sacral levels: lesions at the thoracic spine tend to lead more frequently to neurological symptoms. Objective: The aim of the current paper is to describe current evidence-based standards of therapy in the management of SD by emphasizing pharmacological therapy and principles and indications for bracing and surgery. Methods: A PubMed and Google Scholar search using various forms and combinations of the key words: spondylodiscitis, spine, infection, therapy, surgery, radiology, treatment. Reference citations from publications identified in the literature search were reviewed. Publications highlighted in this article were extracted based on relevancy to established, putative, and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic standards, either conservative (antibiotic therapy and bracing) or surgical. Findings: To date, conservative therapy, based on targeted antibiotic therapy plus bracing, represents the mainstay in the management of SD. Proper diagnosis and tailored therapy can improve clinical results and decrease the chance of failure. Surgery should be an option only for patients with complications of this disease, namely deformity, neural compression and neurological compromise. Current standards in the setting of SD are continuously evolving, as can be seen in the recent advances in the field of radiological diagnostics, and the use of growth factors and cell-therapy strategies to promote infection eradication and bone healing after surgery. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.

Spondylodiscitis: Standards of current treatment

Papapietro N.;Russo F.;Vadalà G.;Denaro V.
2012-01-01

Abstract

Background: Spinal infections are an important clinical problem that often require aggressive medical therapy, and sometimes even surgery. Known risk factors are advanced age, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, immunosuppression, alcoholism, long-term steroid use, concomitant infections, poly-trauma, malignant tumor, and previous surgery or invasive procedures (discography, chemonucleolysis, and surgical procedures involving or adjacent to the intervertebral disc space). The most common level of involvement is at the lumbar spine, followed by the thoracic, cervical and sacral levels: lesions at the thoracic spine tend to lead more frequently to neurological symptoms. Objective: The aim of the current paper is to describe current evidence-based standards of therapy in the management of SD by emphasizing pharmacological therapy and principles and indications for bracing and surgery. Methods: A PubMed and Google Scholar search using various forms and combinations of the key words: spondylodiscitis, spine, infection, therapy, surgery, radiology, treatment. Reference citations from publications identified in the literature search were reviewed. Publications highlighted in this article were extracted based on relevancy to established, putative, and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic standards, either conservative (antibiotic therapy and bracing) or surgical. Findings: To date, conservative therapy, based on targeted antibiotic therapy plus bracing, represents the mainstay in the management of SD. Proper diagnosis and tailored therapy can improve clinical results and decrease the chance of failure. Surgery should be an option only for patients with complications of this disease, namely deformity, neural compression and neurological compromise. Current standards in the setting of SD are continuously evolving, as can be seen in the recent advances in the field of radiological diagnostics, and the use of growth factors and cell-therapy strategies to promote infection eradication and bone healing after surgery. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.
Antibiotic therapy
Bracing
PET-TC
Spondylodiscitis
Surgery
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Blood
Blood Sedimentation
Braces
C-Reactive Protein
Discitis
Humans
Internal Medicine
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Positron-Emission Tomography
Radiography
Spine
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/67667
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