Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in a wide range of outcomes characterized by a high heterogeneity in both symptomatology and susceptibility to the disease. In such a perspective, COVID-19 may be considered as a multifactorial disease featured by the interaction between the environment, which is the virus itself, and the genetic profile of the host. Our analysis aimed at investigating the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 within families whose members responded in different ways to the infection, although the exposure was common to the entire group and occurred before the availability of any vaccine. The goal was to understand how the genetic background of each subject can influence the viral infection outcome and hence the above-mentioned clinical variability. We performed a segregation analysis in 19 Italian families with a designed custom panel of 42 genes involved in immunity and virus entry and which have also been shown to be related to SARS-CoV-2 host response. We carried out both a familial segregation analysis and a global statistical analysis. In the former we identified eighteen risk variants co-segregating with a COVID-positive status and six variants with a possible protective effect. In addition, sixteen variants showed a trend of association to a severe phenotype. Together with common SNPs, we detected private rare variants that may also provide insight into the observed clinical COVID-19 heterogeneity. The global statistical analysis confirmed statistically significant positive associations between SARS-CoV-2 individual response and some specific gene variants identified in familial analysis. In conclusion our data confirm that the clinical expression of COVID-19 is markedly influenced by the host genetic profile both with a mendelian transmission pattern and a polygenic architecture.

Genetic variants determine intrafamilial variability of SARS-CoV-2 clinical outcomes in 19 Italian families

Tirindelli, Maria Cristina;Lintas, Carla;Sacco, Roberto;Gurrieri, Fiorella
2022-01-01

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in a wide range of outcomes characterized by a high heterogeneity in both symptomatology and susceptibility to the disease. In such a perspective, COVID-19 may be considered as a multifactorial disease featured by the interaction between the environment, which is the virus itself, and the genetic profile of the host. Our analysis aimed at investigating the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 within families whose members responded in different ways to the infection, although the exposure was common to the entire group and occurred before the availability of any vaccine. The goal was to understand how the genetic background of each subject can influence the viral infection outcome and hence the above-mentioned clinical variability. We performed a segregation analysis in 19 Italian families with a designed custom panel of 42 genes involved in immunity and virus entry and which have also been shown to be related to SARS-CoV-2 host response. We carried out both a familial segregation analysis and a global statistical analysis. In the former we identified eighteen risk variants co-segregating with a COVID-positive status and six variants with a possible protective effect. In addition, sixteen variants showed a trend of association to a severe phenotype. Together with common SNPs, we detected private rare variants that may also provide insight into the observed clinical COVID-19 heterogeneity. The global statistical analysis confirmed statistically significant positive associations between SARS-CoV-2 individual response and some specific gene variants identified in familial analysis. In conclusion our data confirm that the clinical expression of COVID-19 is markedly influenced by the host genetic profile both with a mendelian transmission pattern and a polygenic architecture.
Humans; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; SARS-CoV-2; Virus Internalization; COVID-19; Virus Diseases
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/69663
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