Objective Epilepsy treatment during pregnancy is still challenging. The study is aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of carbamazepine (CBZ), lamotrigine (LTG) and levetiracetam (LEV) monotherapies during pregnancy in women with focal (FE) or generalized (GE) epilepsy. Methods A multicentre retrospective study was conducted to evaluate seizures frequency and seizure freedom (SF) rate during 3 months before pregnancy, each trimester of gestation and post-partum period in women on monotherapy with CBZ, LTG and LEV. Results Fifty-seven pregnancies (45 FE, 12 GE) on monotherapy (29 CBZ, 11 LTG, 17 LEV) were included. A significant reduction of seizure frequency was found in the first trimester of pregnancy as compared with that one before pregnancy (p = 0.004), more evident in GE (p = 0.003) and in LEV group (p = 0.004). The SF rate significantly increased in the first trimester in comparison to that one before pregnancy and persisted in the post-partum period in the whole sample (p < 0.001) and in women on LEV (p = 0.004). Besides, 88.57% of SF women before pregnancy remained unchanged during gestation and the post-partum period. One major heart malformation in CBZ and no major malformations in LTG and LEV groups were found. Conclusions A better clinical outcome during pregnancy emerged since the first trimester in comparison to the before-pregnancy period, mostly evident in women with GE and LEV therapy, reinforcing the hypothesis of a protective role of pregnancy versus seizures. SF before pregnancy represents a significant predictive factor of good clinical outcome during gestation and the post-partum period. Compared to CBZ, LTG and LEV showed a better safety profile.

Levetiracetam, lamotrigine and carbamazepine: which monotherapy during pregnancy?

Tombini, Mario;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Objective Epilepsy treatment during pregnancy is still challenging. The study is aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of carbamazepine (CBZ), lamotrigine (LTG) and levetiracetam (LEV) monotherapies during pregnancy in women with focal (FE) or generalized (GE) epilepsy. Methods A multicentre retrospective study was conducted to evaluate seizures frequency and seizure freedom (SF) rate during 3 months before pregnancy, each trimester of gestation and post-partum period in women on monotherapy with CBZ, LTG and LEV. Results Fifty-seven pregnancies (45 FE, 12 GE) on monotherapy (29 CBZ, 11 LTG, 17 LEV) were included. A significant reduction of seizure frequency was found in the first trimester of pregnancy as compared with that one before pregnancy (p = 0.004), more evident in GE (p = 0.003) and in LEV group (p = 0.004). The SF rate significantly increased in the first trimester in comparison to that one before pregnancy and persisted in the post-partum period in the whole sample (p < 0.001) and in women on LEV (p = 0.004). Besides, 88.57% of SF women before pregnancy remained unchanged during gestation and the post-partum period. One major heart malformation in CBZ and no major malformations in LTG and LEV groups were found. Conclusions A better clinical outcome during pregnancy emerged since the first trimester in comparison to the before-pregnancy period, mostly evident in women with GE and LEV therapy, reinforcing the hypothesis of a protective role of pregnancy versus seizures. SF before pregnancy represents a significant predictive factor of good clinical outcome during gestation and the post-partum period. Compared to CBZ, LTG and LEV showed a better safety profile.
Anti-seizure medications (ASMs); Carbamazepine (CBZ); Epilepsy; Lamotrigine (LTG); Levetiracetam (LEV); Monotherapy; Pregnancy; Female; Humans; Lamotrigine; Levetiracetam; Pregnancy; Retrospective Studies; Triazines; Anticonvulsants; Carbamazepine
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/69984
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