Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) include a large variety of disorders that affects specific areas of the centralnervous system, leading to psychiatric and movement pathologies. A common feature that characterizes thesedisorders is the neuronal formation and accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates that lead to cell death. Inparticular, different proteinaceous aggregates accumulate to trigger a variety of clinical manifestations: prionprotein (PrPSc) in prion diseases, β-amyloid (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease(PD), huntingtin in Huntington's disease (HD), superoxide dismutase and TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS), tau in tauopathies. Non-motor alterations also occur in several viscera, in particular the gastrointestinaltract. These often precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years. For this reason, dysautonomic changescan be predictive of NDs and their correct recognition is being assuming a remarkable importance. This peculiarfeature led more and more to the concept that neurodegeneration may initiate in the periphery and propagate retrogradelytowards the central nervous system in a prion-like manner. In recent years, a particular attention wasdedicated to the clinical assessment of autonomic disorders in patients affected by NDs. In this respect, experimentalanimal models have been developed to understand the neurobiology underlying these effects as well as toinvestigate autonomic changes in peripheral organs. This review summarizes experimental studies that have beencarried out to understand autonomic symptoms in NDs, with the purpose to provide appropriate tools for comprehensiveand integrated studies.

The neurobiology of dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease

Vivacqua, Giorgio;
2013-01-01

Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) include a large variety of disorders that affects specific areas of the centralnervous system, leading to psychiatric and movement pathologies. A common feature that characterizes thesedisorders is the neuronal formation and accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates that lead to cell death. Inparticular, different proteinaceous aggregates accumulate to trigger a variety of clinical manifestations: prionprotein (PrPSc) in prion diseases, β-amyloid (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease(PD), huntingtin in Huntington's disease (HD), superoxide dismutase and TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS), tau in tauopathies. Non-motor alterations also occur in several viscera, in particular the gastrointestinaltract. These often precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years. For this reason, dysautonomic changescan be predictive of NDs and their correct recognition is being assuming a remarkable importance. This peculiarfeature led more and more to the concept that neurodegeneration may initiate in the periphery and propagate retrogradelytowards the central nervous system in a prion-like manner. In recent years, a particular attention wasdedicated to the clinical assessment of autonomic disorders in patients affected by NDs. In this respect, experimentalanimal models have been developed to understand the neurobiology underlying these effects as well as toinvestigate autonomic changes in peripheral organs. This review summarizes experimental studies that have beencarried out to understand autonomic symptoms in NDs, with the purpose to provide appropriate tools for comprehensiveand integrated studies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/70370
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