From the introduction of hyperferritinemic syndrome concept, a growing body of evidence has suggested the role of ferritin as a pathogenic mediator and a relevant clinical feature in the management of patients with inflam-matory diseases.From a pathogenic point of view, ferritin may directly stimulate the aberrant immune response by triggering the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in inducing a vicious pathogenic loop and contributing to the occurrence of cytokine storm syndrome. The latter has been recently defined as a clinical picture characterised by elevated circulating cytokine levels, acute systemic inflammatory symptoms, and secondary organ dysfunction beyond that which could be attributed to a normal response to a pathogen It is noteworthy that the occurrence of hyperferritinemia may be correlated with the development of the cytokine storm syndrome in the context of an inflammatory disease. In addition to adult onset Still's disease, macrophage activation syndrome, catastrophic anti-phospholipids syndrome, and septic shock, recent evidence has suggested this association between ferritin and life-threatening evolution in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, with anti-MDA5 antibodies in the context of poly-dermatomyositis, with severe COVID-19, and with multisystem inflammatory syndrome. The possible underlying common inflammatory mechanisms, associated with hyperferritinemia, may led to the similar clinical picture observed in these patients. Furthermore, similar therapeutic strategies could be suggested inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and improving long-term outcomes in these disorders. Thus, it could be possible to expand the spectrum of the hyperferritinemic syndrome to those diseases burdened by a dreadful clinical picture correlated with hyperferritinemia and the occurrence of the cytokine storm syndrome. In addi-tion, the assessment of ferritin may provide useful information to the physicians in clinical practice to manage these patients. Therefore, ferritin may be considered a relevant clinical feature to be used as biomarker in dis-secting the unmet needs in the management of these disorders.Novel evidence may thus support an expansion of the spectrum of the hyperferritinemic syndrome to these diseases burdened by a life-threatening clinical picture correlated with hyperferritinemia and the occurrence of the cytokine storm syndrome.

Expanding the spectrum of the hyperferritinemic syndrome, from pathogenic mechanisms to clinical observations, and therapeutic implications

Giacomelli, Roberto;
2022-01-01

Abstract

From the introduction of hyperferritinemic syndrome concept, a growing body of evidence has suggested the role of ferritin as a pathogenic mediator and a relevant clinical feature in the management of patients with inflam-matory diseases.From a pathogenic point of view, ferritin may directly stimulate the aberrant immune response by triggering the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in inducing a vicious pathogenic loop and contributing to the occurrence of cytokine storm syndrome. The latter has been recently defined as a clinical picture characterised by elevated circulating cytokine levels, acute systemic inflammatory symptoms, and secondary organ dysfunction beyond that which could be attributed to a normal response to a pathogen It is noteworthy that the occurrence of hyperferritinemia may be correlated with the development of the cytokine storm syndrome in the context of an inflammatory disease. In addition to adult onset Still's disease, macrophage activation syndrome, catastrophic anti-phospholipids syndrome, and septic shock, recent evidence has suggested this association between ferritin and life-threatening evolution in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, with anti-MDA5 antibodies in the context of poly-dermatomyositis, with severe COVID-19, and with multisystem inflammatory syndrome. The possible underlying common inflammatory mechanisms, associated with hyperferritinemia, may led to the similar clinical picture observed in these patients. Furthermore, similar therapeutic strategies could be suggested inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and improving long-term outcomes in these disorders. Thus, it could be possible to expand the spectrum of the hyperferritinemic syndrome to those diseases burdened by a dreadful clinical picture correlated with hyperferritinemia and the occurrence of the cytokine storm syndrome. In addi-tion, the assessment of ferritin may provide useful information to the physicians in clinical practice to manage these patients. Therefore, ferritin may be considered a relevant clinical feature to be used as biomarker in dis-secting the unmet needs in the management of these disorders.Novel evidence may thus support an expansion of the spectrum of the hyperferritinemic syndrome to these diseases burdened by a life-threatening clinical picture correlated with hyperferritinemia and the occurrence of the cytokine storm syndrome.
Adult-onset Still’s disease; COVID-19; Ferritin; Macrophage activation syndrome; Poly-dermatomyositis; Septic shock; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Adult; Cytokine Release Syndrome; Cytokines; Ferritins; Humans; COVID-19; Hyperferritinemia; Macrophage Activation Syndrome; Still's Disease, Adult-Onset
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/70428
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