Secondary alcohol metabolites and reactive oxygen species mediate cardiomyopathy induced by cumulative doses of antitumor anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin and epirubicin. Epirubicin exhibits a defective conversion to both toxic species, thereby inducing cardiotoxicity at doses higher than equiactive to doxorubicin; however, the gain in cardiac tolerability seems to be marginal compared with the magnitude of the metabolic defects of epirubicin. Cardiomyopathy may occur independent of toxic metabolites if a given anthracycline tends to accumulate in the heart; therefore, we characterized whether epirubicin showed an unusual accumulation in human myocardial strips incubated in plasma. Epirubicin exhibited a higher uptake and reached myocardial levels 2 times higher than those of doxorubicin. Epirubicin also showed a unique metabolization to doxorubicinolone, the product of epirubicin deglycosidation and carbonyl reduction. In diffusing from the strips to plasma, doxorubicinolone caused membrane permeation effects that augmented epirubicin elimination. Experiments with purified doxorubicinolone showed that the efflux of 1 mol doxorubicinolone promoted the concomitant elimination of as many as approximately 40 mol epirubicin. Doxorubicinolone could also diffuse from plasma back to the strips, causing a permeation effect that promoted epirubicin reuptake; however, this reverse process was slower and less potent. On balance, doxorubicinolone efflux diminished the epirubicin to doxorubicin accumulation ratio to approximately 1.5. These results suggest that the cardiac tolerability of epirubicin is limited by its accumulation in the heart and that such accumulation would be even higher in the absence of doxorubicinolone formation and efflux. These results may also serve guidelines for developing noncardiotoxic anthracyclines.

Doxorubicinolone formation and efflux : A salvage pathway against epirubicin accumulation in human heart

SALVATORELLI E;MENNA P;LUSINI M;COVINO E;MINOTTI G
2009-01-01

Abstract

Secondary alcohol metabolites and reactive oxygen species mediate cardiomyopathy induced by cumulative doses of antitumor anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin and epirubicin. Epirubicin exhibits a defective conversion to both toxic species, thereby inducing cardiotoxicity at doses higher than equiactive to doxorubicin; however, the gain in cardiac tolerability seems to be marginal compared with the magnitude of the metabolic defects of epirubicin. Cardiomyopathy may occur independent of toxic metabolites if a given anthracycline tends to accumulate in the heart; therefore, we characterized whether epirubicin showed an unusual accumulation in human myocardial strips incubated in plasma. Epirubicin exhibited a higher uptake and reached myocardial levels 2 times higher than those of doxorubicin. Epirubicin also showed a unique metabolization to doxorubicinolone, the product of epirubicin deglycosidation and carbonyl reduction. In diffusing from the strips to plasma, doxorubicinolone caused membrane permeation effects that augmented epirubicin elimination. Experiments with purified doxorubicinolone showed that the efflux of 1 mol doxorubicinolone promoted the concomitant elimination of as many as approximately 40 mol epirubicin. Doxorubicinolone could also diffuse from plasma back to the strips, causing a permeation effect that promoted epirubicin reuptake; however, this reverse process was slower and less potent. On balance, doxorubicinolone efflux diminished the epirubicin to doxorubicin accumulation ratio to approximately 1.5. These results suggest that the cardiac tolerability of epirubicin is limited by its accumulation in the heart and that such accumulation would be even higher in the absence of doxorubicinolone formation and efflux. These results may also serve guidelines for developing noncardiotoxic anthracyclines.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/7078
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