Cumulative doses of doxorubicin and other antitumor anthracyclines may cause heart failure (HF). Cardiotoxicity is determined by cardiac exposure to anthracyclines and to more toxic secondary alcohol metabolites that are formed inside cardiomyocytes or diffuse from the bloodstream. Concerns exist that HF might be caused by cumulative anthracycline doses that were thought to be safe. Patients with gain-of-function polymorphism of carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3), which converts anthracyclines to secondary alcohol metabolites, would be at a higher risk of HF. Recently, a pharmacokinetic model was developed that simulated clinical exposure of human myocardium to anthracyclines and incorporated simulations of CBR3 polymorphism. It was shown that HF risk could occur after lower doxorubicin doses than previously reported, particularly for patients with CBR3 polymorphism. In this study, we show that also daunorubicin and idarubicin, but not epirubicin, might cause HF after reportedly safe cumulative doses. CBR3 polymorphism increased HF risk from daunorubicin and idarubicin to a greater extent as compared with doxorubicin. This was caused by daunorubicin and idarubicin forming higher levels of toxic metabolites in human myocardium; moreover, daunorubicin and idarubicin metabolites diffused from plasma and accumulated in cardiac tissue, whereas doxorubicin metabolite did not. CBR3 polymorphism did not aggravate HF risk from epirubicin, which was caused by the very low levels of formation of its toxic metabolite. These results support concerns about HF risk from low-dose anthracycline, characterize the analog specificity of HF risk, and illuminate the role of secondary alcohol metabolites.

Low dose anthracycline and risk of heart failure in a pharmacokinetic model of human myocardium exposure: analog specificity and role of secondary alcohol metabolites

SALVATORELLI E;P. Menna;M. Chello;E. Covino;G. Minotti
2018-01-01

Abstract

Cumulative doses of doxorubicin and other antitumor anthracyclines may cause heart failure (HF). Cardiotoxicity is determined by cardiac exposure to anthracyclines and to more toxic secondary alcohol metabolites that are formed inside cardiomyocytes or diffuse from the bloodstream. Concerns exist that HF might be caused by cumulative anthracycline doses that were thought to be safe. Patients with gain-of-function polymorphism of carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3), which converts anthracyclines to secondary alcohol metabolites, would be at a higher risk of HF. Recently, a pharmacokinetic model was developed that simulated clinical exposure of human myocardium to anthracyclines and incorporated simulations of CBR3 polymorphism. It was shown that HF risk could occur after lower doxorubicin doses than previously reported, particularly for patients with CBR3 polymorphism. In this study, we show that also daunorubicin and idarubicin, but not epirubicin, might cause HF after reportedly safe cumulative doses. CBR3 polymorphism increased HF risk from daunorubicin and idarubicin to a greater extent as compared with doxorubicin. This was caused by daunorubicin and idarubicin forming higher levels of toxic metabolites in human myocardium; moreover, daunorubicin and idarubicin metabolites diffused from plasma and accumulated in cardiac tissue, whereas doxorubicin metabolite did not. CBR3 polymorphism did not aggravate HF risk from epirubicin, which was caused by the very low levels of formation of its toxic metabolite. These results support concerns about HF risk from low-dose anthracycline, characterize the analog specificity of HF risk, and illuminate the role of secondary alcohol metabolites.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/7175
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