Defining reliable tools for early prediction of outcome is the main target for physicians to guide care decisions in patients with brain injury. The application of machine learning (ML) is rapidly increasing in this field of study, but with a poor translation to clinical practice. This is basically dependent on the uncertainty about the advantages of this novel technique with respect to traditional approaches. In this review we address the main differences between ML techniques and traditional statistics (such as logistic regression, LR) applied for predicting outcome in patients with stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thirteen papers directly addressing the different performance among ML and LR methods were included in this review. Basically, ML algorithms do not outperform traditional regression approaches for outcome prediction in brain injury. Better performance of specific ML algorithms (such as Artificial neural networks) was mainly described in the stroke domain, but the high heterogeneity in features extracted from low-dimensional clinical data reduces the enthusiasm for applying this powerful method in clinical practice. To better capture and predict the dynamic changes in patients with brain injury during intensive care courses ML algorithms should be extended to high-dimensional data extracted from neuroimaging (structural and fMRI), EEG and genetics.

Predicting Outcome in Patients with Brain Injury: Differences between Machine Learning versus Conventional Statistics

Bruschetta, Roberta;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Defining reliable tools for early prediction of outcome is the main target for physicians to guide care decisions in patients with brain injury. The application of machine learning (ML) is rapidly increasing in this field of study, but with a poor translation to clinical practice. This is basically dependent on the uncertainty about the advantages of this novel technique with respect to traditional approaches. In this review we address the main differences between ML techniques and traditional statistics (such as logistic regression, LR) applied for predicting outcome in patients with stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thirteen papers directly addressing the different performance among ML and LR methods were included in this review. Basically, ML algorithms do not outperform traditional regression approaches for outcome prediction in brain injury. Better performance of specific ML algorithms (such as Artificial neural networks) was mainly described in the stroke domain, but the high heterogeneity in features extracted from low-dimensional clinical data reduces the enthusiasm for applying this powerful method in clinical practice. To better capture and predict the dynamic changes in patients with brain injury during intensive care courses ML algorithms should be extended to high-dimensional data extracted from neuroimaging (structural and fMRI), EEG and genetics.
2022
brain injury; linear regression; machine learning; prediction model; stroke; traumatic brain injury
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/72003
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