Background: Cortical excitability measures neural reactivity to stimuli, usually delivered via Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Excitation/inhibition balance (E/I) is the ongoing equilibrium between excitatory and inhibitory activity of neural circuits. According to some studies, E/I could be estimated in-vivo and noninvasively through the modeling of electroencephalography (EEG) signals and termed 'intrinsic excitability' measures. Several measures have been proposed (phase consistency in the gamma band, sample entropy, exponent of the power spectral density 1/f curve, E/I index extracted from detrend fluctuation analysis, and alpha power). Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique allowing controlled and focal enhancement of TMS cortical excitability and E/I of the stimulated hemisphere. Objective: Investigating to what extent E/I estimates scale with TMS excitability and how they relate to each other. Methods: M1 excitability (TMS) and several E/I estimates extracted from resting state EEG recordings were assessed before and after iTBS in a cohort of healthy subjects. Results: Enhancement of TMS M1 excitability, as measured through motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and phase consistency of the cortex in high gamma band correlated with each other. Other measures of E/I showed some expected results, but no correlation with TMS excitability measures or strong consistency with each other. Conclusions: EEG E/I estimates offer an intriguing opportunity to map cortical excitability non-invasively, with high spatio-temporal resolution and with a stimulus independent approach. While different EEG E/I estimates may reflect the activity of diverse excitatory-inhibitory circuits, spatial phase synchrony in the gamma band is the measure that best captures excitability changes in the primary motor cortex.

Assessing cortical excitability with electroencephalography: A pilot study with EEG-iTBS

Tombini, Mario;Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo;Assenza, Giovanni
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Cortical excitability measures neural reactivity to stimuli, usually delivered via Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Excitation/inhibition balance (E/I) is the ongoing equilibrium between excitatory and inhibitory activity of neural circuits. According to some studies, E/I could be estimated in-vivo and noninvasively through the modeling of electroencephalography (EEG) signals and termed 'intrinsic excitability' measures. Several measures have been proposed (phase consistency in the gamma band, sample entropy, exponent of the power spectral density 1/f curve, E/I index extracted from detrend fluctuation analysis, and alpha power). Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique allowing controlled and focal enhancement of TMS cortical excitability and E/I of the stimulated hemisphere. Objective: Investigating to what extent E/I estimates scale with TMS excitability and how they relate to each other. Methods: M1 excitability (TMS) and several E/I estimates extracted from resting state EEG recordings were assessed before and after iTBS in a cohort of healthy subjects. Results: Enhancement of TMS M1 excitability, as measured through motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and phase consistency of the cortex in high gamma band correlated with each other. Other measures of E/I showed some expected results, but no correlation with TMS excitability measures or strong consistency with each other. Conclusions: EEG E/I estimates offer an intriguing opportunity to map cortical excitability non-invasively, with high spatio-temporal resolution and with a stimulus independent approach. While different EEG E/I estimates may reflect the activity of diverse excitatory-inhibitory circuits, spatial phase synchrony in the gamma band is the measure that best captures excitability changes in the primary motor cortex.
2024
Brain Stimulation; E/I Balance; EEG; Excitability; TMS; iTBS
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/77822
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