Background: Linear endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) represents a pivotal innovation in interventional pulmonology; determining the best approach to guarantee systematic and efficient training is expected to become a main issue in the forthcoming years. Virtual reality simulators have been proposed as potential EBUS-TBNA training instruments, to avoid unskilled beginners practicing directly in real-life settings. A validated and perfected simulation program could be used before allowing beginners to practice on patients. Our goal was to test the reliability of the EBUSSkills and Task Assessment Tool (STAT) and its subscores for measuring the competence of experienced bronchoscopists approaching EBUS-guided TBNA, using only the virtual reality simulator as both a training and an assessment tool. Methods: Fifteen experienced bronchoscopists, with poor or no experience in EBUS-TBNA, participated in this study. They were all administered the Italian version of the EBUS-STAT evaluation tool, during a high-fidelity virtual reality simulation. This was followed by a single 7- hour theoretical and practical (on simulators) session on EBUS-TBNA, at the end of which their skills were reassessed by EBUS-STAT. Results: An overall, significant improvement in EBUSTBNA skills was observed, thereby confirming that (a) virtual reality simulation can facilitate practical learning among practitioners, and (b) EBUS-STAT is capable of detecting these improvements. The test's overall ability to detect differences was negatively influenced by the minimal variation of the scores relating to items 1 and 2, was not influenced by the training, and improved significantly when the 2 items were not considered. Apart from these 2 items, all the remaining subscores were equally capable of revealing improvements in the learner. Lastly, we found that trainees with presimulation EBUS-STAT scores above 79 did not show any significant improvement after virtual reality training, suggesting that this score represents a cutoff value capable of predicting the likelihood that simulation can be beneficial. Conclusions: Virtual reality simulation is capable of providing a practical learning tool for practitioners with previous experience in flexible bronchoscopy, and the EBUS-STAT questionnaire is capable of detecting these changes. A pretraining EBUS-STAT score below 79 is a good indicator of those candidates who will benefit from the simulation training. Further studies are needed to verify whether a modified version of the questionnaire would be capable of improving its performance among experienced bronchoscopists.

EBUS-STAT subscore analysis to predict the efficacy and assess the validity of virtual reality simulation for EBUS-TBNA training among experienced bronchoscopists

Scarlata S;Petitti T;
2017-01-01

Abstract

Background: Linear endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) represents a pivotal innovation in interventional pulmonology; determining the best approach to guarantee systematic and efficient training is expected to become a main issue in the forthcoming years. Virtual reality simulators have been proposed as potential EBUS-TBNA training instruments, to avoid unskilled beginners practicing directly in real-life settings. A validated and perfected simulation program could be used before allowing beginners to practice on patients. Our goal was to test the reliability of the EBUSSkills and Task Assessment Tool (STAT) and its subscores for measuring the competence of experienced bronchoscopists approaching EBUS-guided TBNA, using only the virtual reality simulator as both a training and an assessment tool. Methods: Fifteen experienced bronchoscopists, with poor or no experience in EBUS-TBNA, participated in this study. They were all administered the Italian version of the EBUS-STAT evaluation tool, during a high-fidelity virtual reality simulation. This was followed by a single 7- hour theoretical and practical (on simulators) session on EBUS-TBNA, at the end of which their skills were reassessed by EBUS-STAT. Results: An overall, significant improvement in EBUSTBNA skills was observed, thereby confirming that (a) virtual reality simulation can facilitate practical learning among practitioners, and (b) EBUS-STAT is capable of detecting these improvements. The test's overall ability to detect differences was negatively influenced by the minimal variation of the scores relating to items 1 and 2, was not influenced by the training, and improved significantly when the 2 items were not considered. Apart from these 2 items, all the remaining subscores were equally capable of revealing improvements in the learner. Lastly, we found that trainees with presimulation EBUS-STAT scores above 79 did not show any significant improvement after virtual reality training, suggesting that this score represents a cutoff value capable of predicting the likelihood that simulation can be beneficial. Conclusions: Virtual reality simulation is capable of providing a practical learning tool for practitioners with previous experience in flexible bronchoscopy, and the EBUS-STAT questionnaire is capable of detecting these changes. A pretraining EBUS-STAT score below 79 is a good indicator of those candidates who will benefit from the simulation training. Further studies are needed to verify whether a modified version of the questionnaire would be capable of improving its performance among experienced bronchoscopists.
EBUS-TBNA; Training; Virtual Reality Simulation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/991
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