We describe the underlying theory, design and experimental evaluation of an electromechanical analogue infant lung to simulate spontaneous breathing patterns of preterm infants. The aim of this work is to test the possibility to obtain breathing patterns of preterm infants by taking into consideration the air compressibility. Respiratory volume function represents the actuation pattern, and pulmonary pressure and flow-rate waveforms are mathematically obtained through the application of the perfect gas and adiabatic laws. The mathematical model reduces the simulation interval into a step shorter than 1 ms, allowing to consider an entire respiratory act as composed of a large number of almost instantaneous adiabatic transformations.The device consists of a spherical chamber where the air is compressed by four cylinder-pistons, moved by stepper motors, and flows through a fluid-dynamic resistance, which also works as flow-rate sensor. Specifically designed software generates the actuators motion, based on the desired ventilation parameters, without controlling the gas pneumatic parameters with a closed-loop.The system is able to simulate tidal volumes from 3 to 8 ml, breathing frequencies from 60 to 120 bpm and functional residual capacities from 25 to 80 ml. The simulated waveforms appear very close to the measured ones. Percentage differences on the tidal volume waveform vary from 7% for the tidal volume of 3 ml, down to 2.2-3.5% for tidal volumes in the range of 4-7 ml, and 1.3% for the tidal volume equal to 8 ml in the whole breathing frequency and functional residual capacity ranges.The open-loop electromechanical simulator shows that gas compressibility can be theoretically assessed in the typical pneumatic variable range of preterm infant respiratory mechanics.

An open-loop controlled active lung simulator for preterm infants

Schena E;Silvestri S
2011-01-01

Abstract

We describe the underlying theory, design and experimental evaluation of an electromechanical analogue infant lung to simulate spontaneous breathing patterns of preterm infants. The aim of this work is to test the possibility to obtain breathing patterns of preterm infants by taking into consideration the air compressibility. Respiratory volume function represents the actuation pattern, and pulmonary pressure and flow-rate waveforms are mathematically obtained through the application of the perfect gas and adiabatic laws. The mathematical model reduces the simulation interval into a step shorter than 1 ms, allowing to consider an entire respiratory act as composed of a large number of almost instantaneous adiabatic transformations.The device consists of a spherical chamber where the air is compressed by four cylinder-pistons, moved by stepper motors, and flows through a fluid-dynamic resistance, which also works as flow-rate sensor. Specifically designed software generates the actuators motion, based on the desired ventilation parameters, without controlling the gas pneumatic parameters with a closed-loop.The system is able to simulate tidal volumes from 3 to 8 ml, breathing frequencies from 60 to 120 bpm and functional residual capacities from 25 to 80 ml. The simulated waveforms appear very close to the measured ones. Percentage differences on the tidal volume waveform vary from 7% for the tidal volume of 3 ml, down to 2.2-3.5% for tidal volumes in the range of 4-7 ml, and 1.3% for the tidal volume equal to 8 ml in the whole breathing frequency and functional residual capacity ranges.The open-loop electromechanical simulator shows that gas compressibility can be theoretically assessed in the typical pneumatic variable range of preterm infant respiratory mechanics.
Electromechanical simulators; Experimental evaluation; Lung simulators
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/5990
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