Invasive intraneural electrodes can control advanced neural-interfaced prostheses in human amputees. Nevertheless, in chronic implants, the progressive formation of a fibrotic capsule can gradually isolate the electrode surface from the surrounding tissue leading to loss of functionality. This is due to a nonspecific inflammatory response called foreign-body reaction (FBR). The commonly used poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based low-fouling coatings of implantable devices can be easily encapsulated and are susceptible to oxidative damage in long-term in vivo applications. Recently, sulfobetaine-based zwitterionic hydrogels have emerged as an important class of robust ultra-low fouling biomaterials, holding great potential to mitigate FBR. The aim of this proof-of-principle in vitro work was to assess whether the organic zwitterionic-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) [poly(SBMA)]-hydrogel could be a suitable coating for Polyimide (PI)-based intraneural electrodes to reduce FBR. We first synthesized and analyzed the hydrogel through a mechanical characterization (i.e., Young's modulus). Then, we demonstrated reduced adhesion and activation of fibrogenic and pro-inflammatory cells (i.e., human myofibroblasts and macrophages) on the hydrogel compared with PEG-coated and polystyrene surfaces using cell viability assays, confocal fluorescence microscopy and high-content analysis of oxidative stress production. Interestingly, we successfully coated PI surfaces with a thin film of the hydrogel through covalent bond and demonstrated its high hydrophilicity via water contact angle measurement. Importantly, we showed the long-term release of an anti-fibrotic drug (i.e., Everolimus) from the hydrogel. Because of the low stiffness, biocompatibility, high hydration and ultra-low fouling characteristics, our zwitterionic hydrogel could be envisioned as long-term diffusion-based delivery system for slow and controlled anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug release in vivo.

A Soft Zwitterionic Hydrogel as Potential Coating on a Polyimide Surface to Reduce Foreign Body Reaction to Intraneural Electrodes

Giannitelli, Sara Maria;Vadalà, Gianluca;Papalia, Rocco;Zollo, Loredana;Trombetta, Marcella;Rainer, Alberto;Di Pino, Giovanni;Denaro, Vincenzo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Invasive intraneural electrodes can control advanced neural-interfaced prostheses in human amputees. Nevertheless, in chronic implants, the progressive formation of a fibrotic capsule can gradually isolate the electrode surface from the surrounding tissue leading to loss of functionality. This is due to a nonspecific inflammatory response called foreign-body reaction (FBR). The commonly used poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based low-fouling coatings of implantable devices can be easily encapsulated and are susceptible to oxidative damage in long-term in vivo applications. Recently, sulfobetaine-based zwitterionic hydrogels have emerged as an important class of robust ultra-low fouling biomaterials, holding great potential to mitigate FBR. The aim of this proof-of-principle in vitro work was to assess whether the organic zwitterionic-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) [poly(SBMA)]-hydrogel could be a suitable coating for Polyimide (PI)-based intraneural electrodes to reduce FBR. We first synthesized and analyzed the hydrogel through a mechanical characterization (i.e., Young's modulus). Then, we demonstrated reduced adhesion and activation of fibrogenic and pro-inflammatory cells (i.e., human myofibroblasts and macrophages) on the hydrogel compared with PEG-coated and polystyrene surfaces using cell viability assays, confocal fluorescence microscopy and high-content analysis of oxidative stress production. Interestingly, we successfully coated PI surfaces with a thin film of the hydrogel through covalent bond and demonstrated its high hydrophilicity via water contact angle measurement. Importantly, we showed the long-term release of an anti-fibrotic drug (i.e., Everolimus) from the hydrogel. Because of the low stiffness, biocompatibility, high hydration and ultra-low fouling characteristics, our zwitterionic hydrogel could be envisioned as long-term diffusion-based delivery system for slow and controlled anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug release in vivo.
2022
Everolimus
PEG
Polyimide
foreign body reaction
intraneural electrodes
macrophages
myofibroblasts
poly(SBMA)
surface coating
zwitterionic hydrogel
Electrodes
Humans
Methacrylates
Polyethylene Glycols
Foreign-Body Reaction
Hydrogels
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12610/67183
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